Human Resource Management is not free from challenges

Human Resource Management is not free from challenges In its implementation, Human Resources (HR) management cannot be separated from various challenges. The following describes some of the challenges faced in implementing HR management :
1. Termination of Employment The policy of termination of employment or layoffs, whether realized or not, has a great influence both on the company and especially on employees. For employees, getting a replacement job is certainly not easy, especially if the employee does not have special skills. This is exacerbated by the existence of an unfair policy, so that employee disappointment can be acted out with less commendable actions which can ultimately be detrimental to both parties. On the other hand, policies that are seen as unfair can trigger other employee unrest so the work climate can be disrupted (Indonesian Research Journal). Under these conditions, HR management is demanded to be able to provide a win-win solution to the interests of employees and the company while minimizing the negative impact if layoff policies are forced into effect.
2. Strikes In addition to layoffs, strikes can also affect human resource development policies. A strike shows that the existing system in the company is not functioning properly. HR management through the HR department is faced with the challenge of being able to manage these conflicts, prevent or resolve strikes so as not to affect the performance of employees or other departments in the company.
3. Growth of the Labor Force The rapid pace of population growth has had a tremendous impact on employment. The higher the workforce, the task of developing human resources is important to carry out. HR management is expected to be able to prepare, optimize and maintain competent and professional human resources to carry out company activities.
4. Labor Productivity One of the main functions of HR development is to increase HR productivity for the company. In this regard, the HR department is responsible for holding various activities related to improving the quality of human resources such as training and education.
5. Competitiveness of Product Quality and Selling Prices In addition to superior quality human resources, in the production process also requires skill and accuracy in producing products, so that it will produce quality products. However, in the business world, a product will not be meaningless without the demand from consumers. In this case, HR management is expected to be able to provide policies that are able to encourage employees to produce competitive and high quality products.
6. Free trade in ASEAN and ASIA The emergence of global policies that impose a world-class free trade system has become its own problem. This is very reasonable because the quality of human resources has not been able to face free trade competition. Therefore, the existence of free trade among ASEAN members and the ASIA region is a challenge in order to prepare to compete in the global arena. Through HR management, the company is expected to be able to answer these challenges by increasing the quality of its human resources to be able to answer the challenges of free trade both at ASIA and the world level.
7. Quality Management Basically, the progress of human resources in an organization or company depends on the system or management used. This means that the higher the quality of management used in managing human resources, the greater the chance of success in developing human resources.

One way to find out consumer behavior is to analyze the perception

One way to find out consumer behavior
One way to find out consumer behavior is to analyze the perception of the product. With consumer perception, companies can find out what are the strengths or weaknesses, opportunities or threats for the products being marketed. This is because consumer perception is one of the internal factors of consumers that influence decision making (Foedjiawati, Hatane Semuel. 2007: 6). Perception arises because of stimuli (stimuli) from outside which will affect a person through the five senses. The stimulus will be selected, organized, and interpreted by each person in their own way.
There are two main factors in perception, namely: Stimulus factors, are physical properties of an object such as size, color, weight, taste, etc. Individual factors, are individual traits which include not only sensory processes, but also past experiences of the same thing. Perception can be formulated as a process of acceptance, selection, organization, and giving meaning to the stimuli received (Consumer perception in retail marketing mix). However, the process does not only extend to giving meaning but will affect the behavior that will be chosen in accordance with the stimuli received from the environment. The process of perception through the stages as follows (Desy Arisandy. 2004: 7): Stimulation reception - In this process, individuals receive stimuli from various sources. Someone prefers to pay attention to one source compared to other sources, if the source has a position that is closer or more attractive to him.
The process of selecting excitatory, After stimulation is received then selected here will be involved in the attention process. The stimulus is selected for further processing. The process of organizing, stimuli received subsequently organized in a form, the process of interpretation After the stimulus or data is received and arranged, the recipient then interprets the data in various ways. After the data is perceived, it can be said that perception has already taken place. Because the perception on the topic gives meaning to various information received.
The checking process - After the data is interpreted the recipient takes several actions to check whether what was done is right or wrong. This interpretation can be done from time to time to confirm whether the interpretation or perception is justified or in accordance with the results of the next process. The process of reaction - The perception environment is not yet perfect causing actions that are usually hidden or open. In reality, with respect to the same object, individuals may have different perceptions. Therefore, Milton (in Kertawan, 2002: 110) suggests the existence of several factors that influence perception. These factors include the object perceived, the situation, the individual perceiving (perceiver), self-perception, and observation of other people.
Furthermore, Pareek (in Kertawan, 2002: 112) suggests there are four main factors that cause differences in perception. Attention - Perception is first started with attention. Not all the stimuli that are around us can we capture everything simultaneously. Our attention is only on one or two objects that are of interest to us. Needs - Everyone has needs that must be met, both those that are sedentary and those that are temporary.
Willingness - Is one's expectation of a stimulus that appears, so that it gives a reaction to the stimulus received more efficiently so that it will be better if the person is ready first. Value system - The value system that applies in a person or society will affect one's perception Perception in the narrow sense is vision, how a person sees things, while in the broad sense is a view or understanding, that is how someone views or interprets something (Sobur, 2005: 445). According to Miftah (1996: 130) there are two factors forming perceptions, namely: internal factors and environmental factors.
Internal factors consist of: The learning process is the process of gaining knowledge through experience. Motivation is a function of various variables that influence each other and is a psychological process that shows high-level efforts to achieve a goal. A person's personality is a total pattern of ways of thinking feelings and behaviors that provide validity regarding individual differences in relation to their environment.

A financial report provides a variety of very important information

A financial report provides a variety of very important information
Financial statements. As we all know that a good accounting record will certainly help us in the activity of making a business financial report, so the financial statements of this business are certainly very important both for its business actors, investors and other related parties. Lots of business people who do not have an educational background that comes from the world of accounting, but that also does not mean that business people who have an accounting education background will apply their knowledge to implement a "good" accounting system for their business. Many of them feel quite satisfied with the cash flow that they get every day. Such as small-scale business people or even street vendors that we often meet.
They only share their income in part to be used to shop for their business needs and some are used to spend personal needs without knowing in detail the proportion of assets, debt and capital in the business. Without doing a good business financial management, especially for business actors who get capital from investors with a profit sharing system, it will certainly be difficult to trace the proportion of additional capital from retained earnings and how much is shared. A financial report provides a variety of information that is very important and can certainly be utilized to make the company or business being run more profitable.
Therefore there are four types of financial statements and timeliness of submitting financial statements that are needed for your business and are mandatory for you to know. Income Statement, Income statement is also called an income statement or profit and lost statement. In the income statement, it describes the elements of income and the company's burden in knowing the net profit or loss that is generated.
The main function of the income statement is to present information about the business performance needed in predicting the company's internal economic conditions in the future. This information will also be used to predict the company's capacity to generate cash flow from available resources. Based on the Financial Accounting Standards issued by the Accountant Association, an ideal financial statement of income must at least have aspects of income, operating income, loan expense, tax burden, profit or loss from the company's normal activities, extraordinary items, minority rights, profit or net loss for the ongoing period, as well as part of the profit and loss of affiliated and associated companies which is applied using the equity method. Extraordinary items refer to revenues, profits, costs or losses arising from transactions or events that occur infrequently. Meanwhile, minority rights are rights owned by small shareholders.
For examples of income statements you can see here, and to find out how to read the income statement. Balance Sheet Reports, If you have never heard of what a balance sheet report is, you might call it a balance sheet. The two things are the same, namely a financial statement that shows the condition, information or business financial position at a certain time. Through the balance sheet financial statements, you can see the amount of assets in the form of company assets or assets, liabilities in the form of corporate debt and equity in the form of company capital.
In general, the balance sheet financial statements have three main elements, namely: Asset Liability Equity If these three things are connected with the accounting equation the equation will be as follows: [Asset = Liabilities + Equity] Cash Flow Statement, cash flow statement, or better known as cash flow, is a financial report on a company that is used to show the company's cash inflows and outflows in an accounting period. The information obtained from the statement of cash flows can be used as an indicator of the amount of cash flow in the future, as well as useful for assessing the accuracy of the estimated cash flows that have been made previously.
A cash flow statement is also an accountability tool for cash inflows and outflows during the reporting period. To find out what is on the cash flow statement you can see here, and how to make a cash flow statement can be seen here. Capital Change Report, Just like its name, the capital change financial statement certainly contains information about the amount of capital owned by your company or business for a certain number of years.
This financial report shows how big the change in capital that has occurred and information about what causes the change to occur. In making a report on changes in capital, you need data about the amount of capital at the beginning of the year and the amount of loss and net income during the period, in addition to that also information about taking personal funds by the owner for the year concerned. That is why you must be able to prepare an income statement before you can make financial statements regarding changes in capital.
Similarly, the types of financial statements needed for your company. In addition to these financial statements can make it easier for you to find out the company's financial condition, the financial statements can also be used as a guide for making decisions and accountability to third parties, for example investors or tax entities. In addition, you can also use accounting software to record your business finances in order to make it easier for you in matters of business financial records.

Relationship marketing is a way of marketing business to customers

Relationship marketing is a way of marketing business to customers
Improving relationships with customers seems to be an important factor in maintaining customer loyalty. Relationships that are fostered are not just short-term relationships, but long-term relationships. To realize this, the company is not only oriented to sales transactions, but also establish long-term relationships with consumers and customers. So, the Relationship marketing approach needs to be applied within the company.
What is meant by Relationship Marketing (Relational Marketing) ?? Let's discuss in this article. Relationship Marketing is very relevant to be discussed in service marketing, given the high level of involvement and interaction between customers and service providers in most service businesses. According to Lupiyoadi (2006: 72), Relationship marketing is a way of marketing a business to customers that increases the company's long-term growth and maximum customer satisfaction. A good customer is an asset where if handled and served well will provide income and long-term growth for a company.
Tandjung (2004: 89) states that, "Relationship marketing is growth, development, and maintenance in the long run that results in a cost effective relationship with customers, suppliers, employees, and other partners that are mutually beneficial". Relationship marketing is a practice of building satisfying long-term relationships with key parties including customers, suppliers and suppliers to maintain long-term business preferences.
According to Chan (2003: 87), "Relationship marketing is intended to create an introduction for each customer closer through two-way communication by managing a mutually beneficial relationship between the customer and the company". Relationship marketing is an effort to introduce each customer closer, create two-way communication with consumers, and manage the mutual relationship between customers and consumers.
Relationship marketing is a dynamic concept, customer behavior which is a major component to determine the direction of relationship marketing policy from time to time is always changing. Relationship marketing is an important interaction in running a business. As stated by Ford (2003: 38), "Relationship as the pattern of interactions and the mutual conditioning of behavior over time, between a company and a customer, a supplier or another organization". That is, patterns of interaction and favorable conditions between companies and consumers, suppliers, or other organizations.
The company seeks to implement strategies in attracting the attention of consumers, suppliers and nurturing members, and managing relationships with consumers, suppliers and other companies. In addition, this concept is an effort to build a more constructive relationship with selected members in achieving long-term marketing success. There are several core concepts of relationship marketing, according to Kotler (2003), as follows:
1. Horizon Long-Term Orientation Is the main characteristic of relationship marketing. The success of relationship marketing is measured by how long the customer is maintained in a relationship with the company. Thus relationship marketing also involves the estimated value of the value throughout the life of the consumer.
2. Commitment and Fulfillment of Promises To be able to establish long-term relationships, relationship marketing emphasizes efforts to maintain an attitude of trust or trust, commitment, by maintaining the integrity of each through the fulfillment of promises or reciprocity, empathy between the two parties.
3. Consumer Share Not Market Share Relationship marketing is no longer concentrated on achieving market share but on efforts to retain customers.
4. Lifelong Value of Customers Companies need to identify customers who have the potential to establish long-term relationships and then calculate the customer's life value (Customer Lifetime Value - CLV) to benefit the company.
5. Two-way Dialogue To achieve the desired relationship, two-way communication is needed.
6. Customization Relationship marketing provides a better understanding of the demands and desires of consumers, thus enabling the supply of products that are in accordance with customer specifications.

Managements study of organizational culture theory

Managements study of organizational culture theory
Many general audiences raise organizational culture questions !? and what influence does organizational culture have on employee performance !? Many still misunderstand that the notion of organizational culture is formed by itself without being conditioned. Assumptions about the definition of organizational culture such as culture in an area are generally scattered. Therefore the need for Managements study of organizational culture theory.
This theory is of course a part of organizational management that must be considered in addition to the forms of the form of the organization and the characteristics of the organization itself. Examples of organizational culture in the field as well as organizational culture journals or papers are widely available. Therefore, it is necessary to have an explanation of the core of organizational culture as a reference to the theory or indicators of organizational culture described in various literature. Understanding Culture, Culture contains a broader sense of scope.
Countries in the pasting world have their own culture which is a national culture. In one country there may be many diverse ethnic groups themselves, as a foundation based on ethnicity and territoriality. Culture is a fundamental assumption developed and found in a group for the need to master and study external and internal adaptation problems. And also culture consists of joint mental programs that require individual responses to the environment.
There is also a different view of what culture is defined as the way of life of people who move to move from generation to generation through various learning processes and knowledge to create the most suitable life in their environment. Understanding Organizational Culture. In general, there are several definitions of organizational culture that can be understood in general. The various definitions are: Organizational culture is a set of principle systems that are jointly recognized and applied by all elements of the organization. This is the difference between one organization and another.
The definition of organizational culture is the way organizations interact with an integrated environment both behavior, assumptions, stories, ideas, myths and thoughts that emphasize the meaning of working in organizations. Organizational culture is a basic set of assumptions. The assumptions then develop in a group to become a reference for behavior in the organization. This habit will be passed on to future generations as a perspective, the basis for acting in organizations.
According to experts. There are ten definitions of organizational culture that can be summarized in this article. Each expert put forward a different meaning from organizational culture. The following is the meaning of organizational culture according to experts: Organizational culture is a collection of assumptions and values both realized and not that can integrate the organization. These assumptions and values determine the behavior of organizational members (Walter R. Freytag).
The definition of organizational culture is a pattern of basic assumptions that are found, formed and developed in groups. These assumptions have the aim that the organization is able to deal with problems that arise due to external adjustments and internal integration that has been going well. So it must be taught to the next generation about methods to reach understanding, how to think and feel related to existing problems (Schein).
Organizational culture is the values that become the reference of HR in solving external problems and efforts to adjust integration into the internal company so that each member of the organization needs to understand the values that exist to behave in the organization (Susanto).
Understanding organizational culture is defined as perception, symbols, principles, values, and desires to synergize groups in working together (Larissa A. Grunig, et al) The theory of organizational culture proposed by Hodge, Anthony and Gales (1996) is a combination of visible and invisible organizational characteristics. Mandy and Noe (1996) put forward organizational culture as a system of existing values, faith, and behavior in organizations that interact with formal structures in forming behavioral rules. The meaning of organizational culture is a collection of norms and values that guide how members of the organization behave.
Members of the organization will act according to the culture formed to be accepted by their surroundings (Lathans, 1998). Organizational culture is a system of principles that is embraced by members of the organization as a differentiator with other organizations (Robbins). Explanation of organizational culture by Gareth R. Jones is a shared perspective and is believed by members of the organization as a system of shared principles.

Characteristics of Consumer Behavior

Characteristics of Consumer Behavior
Before opening a business, smart business owners will study the customer ideally to determine the behavior of their customers. Advertising, and the business itself will be of no use unless you know what behavior you are trying to change or influence from your potential customers. If you have been in business for several years, you may already know the basics of your customer base, but experts will always have more reasons to tell you. Consumer groups use complex surveys, panels, focus groups, and other ways to study consumer behavior, with the aim of finding out what is needed to complete a sale. Here are 10 characteristics of consumer behavior and market segmentation that you can learn for the development of your business:
1. Psychology plays a leading role, consumers choose products and brands based on how they think, feel and reason. Analyzing what drives consumers' emotions and responses through research can help companies place their products or services more frequently.
2. Environmental influences, As in the explanation of consumer behavior factors above, consumers buy based on what they see and hear. Factors such as culture, family, advertising and media messages shape decisions. For example, teens want to buy clothes like their friends wear. Or, if consumers grow up using a special soap or detergent that their family likes, they may be more likely to buy the same brand when they grow up.
3. Individual and group behavior, Consumer behavior can be learned in terms of individuals or groups. Businesses can identify consumers who are similar in demographics such as age, gender, race, or income. Then they can identify common motivators among these groups, such as individuals who want the lowest prices or consumers who are willing to pay more for luxury.
4. Quality of Goods and Services, Consumers don't only buy goods. They also buy services, lifestyle or image. Is that a real product such as household cleaners according to advertisements published on television. Sometimes consumers base their decisions on the same values and variables.
5. Consumer Behavior Influences Society, Consumers become what they buy. If, for example, consumers buy healthier foods, overall health can improve. Or, conversely, if people consume more alcohol, tobacco or junk food, then overall health care costs can increase due to problems such as obesity, cancer or heart disease.
6. Personalization is Preferred, Personalized products and services have become popular because consumers want to be served specifically. There are companies that have created earphones that are tailored for their customers so that they get the best for their ears, and this product is on the market
7. Wanting Convenience, Consumers crave comfort because technology has made things easier. In today's era consumers can buy a car, book a holiday trip or communicate with friends online. Businesses can benefit by utilizing this for more efficiency.
8. Corporate Culture, One of the most important characteristics of consumer behavior is that they often care about who sells the products they buy. Consumers like cool brands. Businesses that offer compelling reasons to buy from them, such as cutting-edge technology, leading fashion or social awareness. This can create repeat buying habits, brand loyalty that will drive consumer action.
9. Knowledge is power, The first step in making a marketing plan is to study consumer behavior. Knowing the characteristics of consumer behavior can help companies create more effective marketing strategies. For example, a business with a first product of the least type will be better off by targeting early users who pride themselves on having the latest and greatest goods.
10. Making Without Selling, Companies can also influence consumers to take actions other than buying, such as perhaps donating to charities or supporting public health initiatives, knowing that consumers care more than shopping. Consumers are more likely to support a business if they believe that the business shares concerns about how consumers feel.

Complete Explanation of Consumer Behavior

Complete Explanation of Consumer Behavior
Consumer Behavior or Buyer Behavior is something that refers to the behavior displayed by individuals when they buy, consume or use certain products or services. This behavior can be influenced by many factors. In addition, it also involves product search, product evaluation where consumers evaluate various features, purchases, and consumption of products. Then post-product purchase behavior is studied which shows the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of consumers which involves the use of the Product Consumers when buying products go through many steps. Study of consumer behavior helps understand how purchasing decisions are made and how they look for products and consumer behavior in marketing dimensions.
In addition, understanding consumer behavior also helps sellers to know what, where, when, how and why consumption occurs. This helps the seller or organization to find out the reasons behind the purchase of the product by consumers and how it satisfies them. The Importance of Consumer Behavior for business managers The main purpose behind marketing the product is to meet the demands and desires of consumers. The study of consumer behavior helps to achieve this goal. Because consumers are the most important people for sales, sales staff, even the company itself. Therefore it is important for them to consider things that consumers like, so they can provide goods and services accordingly. More careful analysis helps in more precise predictions about the consumer behavior of any product or service.
The study of consumer behavior helps operations management such as: business managers, sales staff, and marketers in the following ways. To design the best product or service that fully meets the needs and demands of consumers. To decide where services or products will be available for easy access by consumers. Determine the price at which consumers will be ready to buy the product or service. To find out the best promotional methods that will prove effective in attracting customers to buy products. Understand why, when, how, what and other factors that influence consumer purchasing decisions. The Importance of Consumer Behavior for Sales. It is important for sales or sellers to study consumer behavior. It is also important for them to know consumers as individuals or groups who choose, buy, or use products and services.
Also how they share their experiences to satisfy their wants or needs. This helps sales to investigate and understand how consumers behave so that they can position their products to a specific group of people or targeted individuals. With regard to the marketer's point of view, they assume that the basic purpose of marketing is to sell goods and services to more people so that more profit can be made. The principle of making a profit is always applied by almost all sellers or sales. Previously, the sales team succeeded in achieving their goals. However, today, because consumers are more aware about the use of products and other information from products, it is not easy to sell or attract customers to buy products. So, to sell a product or service or to convince consumers to buy a product, sales must go through proper research to win consumers over.
Factors that Determine Consumer Behavior, Consumer behavior refers to the selection, acquisition and consumption of goods and services to meet their needs. There are various processes involved in consumer behavior. Initially, consumers try to find what products they want to consume, then only choose products that promise greater utility. After choosing a product, the consumer makes an estimate of the funds available to buy it. Finally, consumers look at current commodity prices and make decisions about which products to consume.
Meanwhile, there are several factors that influence consumer purchases, such as social, cultural, personal and psychological. An explanation of these factors is as follows. Consumer behavior is strongly influenced by cultural factors, such as buyer culture, subculture, and social class. Culture, Basically, culture is a part of every company and is the main cause of everyone deciding on a purchase of goods. Cultural influences on purchasing behavior vary from country to country, therefore sellers must be very careful in the cultural analysis of various groups, regions or even countries. Subcultures, Each culture has a different sub-culture, such as religion, nationality, geographical area, race, etc.
Marketing groups can use these groups, segmenting the market in small portions. For example, marketers can design products according to the needs of certain geographical groups. Social class, Every society has some kind of social class important for marketing because the buying behavior of people in certain social classes is similar. Thus marketing activities can be adapted to different social classes. Here we should note that social class is not only determined by income, but there are several other factors such as wealth, education, employment, etc.